Diabetes mellitus refers to endocrine disorders and is characterized by relative or complete insufficiency of the hormone insulin, which is produced in the pancreas.
There are 2 types of this disease:
- insulin-dependent diabetes?
- insulin resistant diabetes.
In both cases, except for insulin preparations, diet appears to be followed.
Basic nutrition principles
The goal of the diet for diabetes is to normalize carbohydrate metabolism, as well as prevent disorders of fat metabolism.
The medical diet corresponds to table 9.
General characteristics of the diet for the day:
- carbohydrates due to polysaccharides should be 300-350 grams.
- proteins - at least 90-100 grams, of which 55% are animal proteins.
- fats - at least 70-80 grams, of which 30% are vegetable fats.
- free liquid - 1, 5 liters (along with soups).
- energy value - 2300-2500 kilocalories.
The basic principles of the diet:
- diet. The diet for diabetes should be fractional: in small portions up to 5-6 times a day, which, on the one hand, will prevent hunger and, on the other hand, will eliminate overeating.
- temperature regime. Food should be consumed hot at 15-65 degrees Celsius.
- alcohol consumption. When following a diabetic diet, you should avoid alcoholic beverages as they contain a large amount of digestible carbohydrates.
- sugar restriction. Sugar and "fast" carbohydrates need to be replaced with xylitol because they are quickly digested and threaten coma.
- salt restriction. The diet for diabetes includes restriction of salt, as it negatively affects the kidneys.
- nutrient content. The amount of protein, fat and carbohydrates should be balanced: at each meal, their content should be about the same.
- mandatory breakfast. In the morning, before the insulin injection, you should have a snack to avoid hypoglycemic coma.
- culinary processing. It is necessary to avoid taking fries, all dishes are served boiled and cooked to save the liver.
- fluid intake. In diabetes, both excess and lack of fluids are dangerous for coma. The amount of fluid you drink should be at least 1. 5 liters per day.
Allowed foods for diabetes
It is recommended to replace fast digesting carbohydrates with raw, boiled and cooked vegetables, which are very useful for diabetes. The food should contain an increased amount of vitamins, which is of great importance for any disease.
Since the diet for diabetes aims not only to normalize carbohydrate metabolism, but also to prevent failures in fat metabolism (in the liver), it is necessary to consume foods high in fat. Sugar and sweets are excluded due to the risk of hyperglycemic coma. Complex carbohydrates should be preferred, which are slowly broken down in the stomach, while simple ones are already absorbed by the mouth.
The list of allowed products includes:
- bran and rye bread - about 200-300 grams.
- low-fat varieties of beef, beef, pork and lamb (cut out all fats).
- poultry (turkey, skinless chicken) boiled or boiled.
- rabbit meat;
- boiled tongue, dietary sausage.
- lean fish boiled or cooked;
- canned fish in their own juice.
- boiled eggs, protein omelets - no more than 2 eggs a day, yolk - once a week.
- vegetable soups, weak meat broths.
- milk at the discretion of the doctor (one glass a day), low-fat cottage cheese, kefir, baked milk with low fat.
- unsalted and mild cheese;
- butter and mistletoe without salt.
- buckwheat, millet, pearl, oatmeal cereals.
- limited pasta and legumes.
- sour berries and fruits.
- vegetables (limited potatoes, white and cauliflower, zucchini, eggplant) boiled and cooked.
- kisses, jellies, mousses;
- weak tea or coffee with milk, compotes and fruit drinks without sugar.
- fish jelly, vegetable caviar, vinaigrette, soaked herring.
- vegetable oil in salads.
When dieting, simple carbohydrates should be excluded, including starch, which raises blood sugar and increases the patient's weight, this is especially true for obese people. It makes sense to avoid the use of fructose: it also belongs to the simple carbohydrates.
It is also worth reducing animal fats and extracts, as they create a burden on the liver.
The list of prohibited products includes:
- puff pastry and muffins;
- high fat meat;
- fatty bird (geese, ducks).
- most sausages;
- almost all canned food;
- high fat fish;
- canned fish with butter;
- salted cheese;
- sweet cottage cheese;
- yolks limited;
- rice, semolina, pasta;
- salted and pickled canned vegetables.
- rich broths;
- sweet fruits (bananas, grapes, raisins, figs).
- sweets (ice cream, jam, cakes, pastries, sweets).
- mustard, horseradish, pepper;
- sweet fruit and berry juices, sweet carbonated drinks.
- fatty cottage cheese;
- potatoes, carrots, beets limited.
Need for a diet for diabetes
A diet for diabetes can not only normalize blood sugar levels, but also reduce weight in obese people. In addition, this treatment table is rich in vitamins, normalizes the work of the gastrointestinal tract. The diet avoids the complications of diabetes (coma) and disciplines the patient.
Proper nutrition is the struggle for a healthy lifestyle.
Consequences of not following the diet
Non-compliance with the diet is dangerous for the development of both hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic coma. Regular violation of the diet is dangerous with kidney damage and the development of vascular complications, which are fraught with limb amputations, blindness and even death.